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Cell afterlife was abstinent via LDH absolution (cytosolic LDH is appear from dying beef due to film permeabilization) application the LDH-GloTM Cytotoxicity Appraisal (Cat. #J2380 Promega, Madison, WI) by accumulation 10 μL of media from a 96-well bowl able-bodied with 10 μL of apprehension agitator and reductase substrate, premixed aloof afore assaying in the admeasurement recommended in the agreement and afresh adulterated 1:10 in LDH Storage Absorber (also able as recommended in the protocol)34. Luminescence was abstinent afterwards 1-h evolution in the aphotic in a BioTek Synergy HT Bowl Reader application Gen5TM software.



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Calcein AM appraisal (Cat. #ALX-610-026, Enzo Life Sciences, Farmingdale, NY) was acclimated to admeasurement corpuscle activity (calcein AM is retained in the cytosol of applicable beef due to film integrity). Briefly, 1 mM banal of reagent in DMSO was added to pre-warmed Locke’s absorber (154 mM NaCl, 5.6 mM KCl, 3.6 mM NaHCO3, 5.6 mM glucose, 2.3 mM CaCl2, 5 mM HEPES, 1.2 mM MgCl2, pH 7.3) to a final absorption of 5 μM. Media was aspirated from 96-well plates and 100 μL of 5 μM calcein AM in Locke’s absorber was added to anniversary well. Plates were incubated at 37 °C for 30 min afterwards which beaming arresting (excitation: 485 nm, emission: 528 nm) was apprehend in a BioTek Synergy HT Bowl Reader application Gen5TM software.

Embryonal rat cortical neurons (RCN) were acquired as ahead declared from rat E15-16 cortices35. For anniversary experiment, cortices were acquired from all embryos (mixed, alien sex) of a distinct abundant Sprague-Dawley® dam (Envigo). Afterwards dissociation, beef were seeded assimilate 96-well, 12-well, 60 mm, 100 mm corpuscle ability plates (Corning, Corning, NY) or XF24 corpuscle ability microplates (Agilent, Santa Clara, CA) and maintained in serum-free altitude application the B27 supplement (ThermoFisher, Waltham, MA) as declared previously35. We ahead showed these cultures are >90% neuronal36.



Etoposide (Cat. #BML-GR307, Enzo Life Sciences, Farmingdale, NY), staurosporine (Cat. #ALX-380-014, Enzo Life Sciences, Farmingdale, NY), camptothecin (Cat. #ALX-350-015, Enzo Life Sciences, Farmingdale, NY), C2-ceramide (Cat. #BML-SL100, Enzo Life Sciences, Farmingdale, NY), doxorubicin (Cat. #CST-5927, Corpuscle Signaling Technologies, Danvers, MA), and mithramycin (Cat. #11434, Cayman Chemical Company, Ann Arbor, MI) were acclimated to amusement 7 canicule in vitro (DIV) beef at concentrations and for times adumbrated elsewhere.



After 6 h appraisal in a XF24 corpuscle ability microplate (Agilent, Santa Clara, CA), mitochondrial oxygen burning amount (OCR) was abstinent by utilizing an Agilent Seahorse XF Analyzer as ahead described37,38. Briefly, afterwards 6 h appraisal of RCN with etoposide  /− mithramycin, 0.5 µg/ml oligomycin, 200 µM dinitrophenol, 10 mM pyruvate, and 1 µM antimycin A were sequentially added to analyze best and additional respiratory capacities. Pyruvate was added to ensure that autogenous substrate was not the absorbed agency in acute respiration measurements. Appraisal breadth was called because time advance appraisal of LDH absolution (data not shown) adumbrated little to no corpuscle afterlife occurring 6 h afterwards etoposide treatment.

Total RNA was abandoned application either the miRNeasy kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany) or the Zymo Research Direct-zol RNA kits (Zymo Research, Irvine, CA) according to the manufacturers’ protocols. Either the Verso cDNA Synthesis kit (Cat. #AB1453B, ThermoFisher, Waltham, MA) or the High-Capacity cDNA About-face Archetype kit (Cat. #4368813, ThermoFisher, Waltham, MA) was acclimated to amalgamate cDNA from antiseptic RNA based on the manufacturer’s protocol. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed application TaqMan Universal Master Mix II (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) with 50 ng cDNA per sample, in duplicate, application the afterward TaqManTM primers: Bbc3/PUMA: Rn00597992_m1; Pmaip1/Noxa: Rn01494552_m1; Cdkn1a/p21: Rn01427989_s1; Akt1: Rn00583646_m1; Ang-1: Rn01504818_m1.

Reactions were amplified and quantified via an Applied Biosytems QuantStudio 5 and its agnate software (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The PCR contour consisted of one aeon of 50 °C for 2 min and 95 °C for 10 min, followed by 40 cycles of 95 °C for 15 s and 60 °C for 1 min. Gene announcement was normalized to GAPDH and the about quantities of mRNA affected application the 2−ddCt adjustment as declared previously39.

100 ng/sample of absolute RNA was abandoned as declared aloft and about-face transcribed application TaqManTM MicroRNA About-face Archetype Kit (Cat #4366596, ThermoFisher, Waltham, MA) and TaqManTM primers. According volumes of anniversary sample were loaded in alike for qPCR application TaqManTM Advanced miRNA assays and the afterward primers: miR-711: Cat. #241136_mat; miR-23a: Cat. #000319.

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Reactions were amplified and quantified via an Applied Biosytems QuantStudio 5 and its agnate software (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The PCR contour consisted of one aeon of 50 °C for 2 min and 95 °C for 10 min, followed by 40 cycles of 95 °C for 15 s and 60 °C for 1 min. Gene announcement was normalized to U6 baby nucleolar RNA and the about quantities of miRNA affected application the 2−ddCt adjustment as declared previously39.

After 24 h (or less) appraisal of RCN with corpuscle afterlife inducer  /− mithramycin, beef were bound aching from the bowl and added to algid 1X PBS. The admixture was centrifuged at 1000 × g to pellet beef and afloat was removed. RIPA absorber (Cat #R3792, Teknova, Hollister, CA) with Protease Inhibitor and Phosphatase Inhibitor (2,3) affair (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was added to the pellet and complete lysis was ensured by incubating the lysate at 4 °C with agitation for 30 min and vortexing thoroughly every 10 min during the incubation. To ensure adapted comparisons amid samples, we took the two-pronged admission of both loading according amounts of protein and normalizing to an adapted housekeeping protein. Protein absorption was abstinent application PierceTM BCA Protein Appraisal Kit (ThermoFisher, Waltham, MA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. According amounts of protein were loaded assimilate 4–20% CriterionTM TGXTM Precast Midi Protein Gels (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) and electrophoresis was performed. Proteins were transferred to 0.2 µm nitrocellulose membranes application the Trans-Blot® TurboTM (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). Membranes were washed, incubated with primary and accessory antibodies (see antibiotic list), and complexes were visualized application SuperSignalTM West Dura Continued Duration Susbtrate (ThermoFisher, Waltham, MA). To appraise proteins with abundantly abstracted atomic weights, membranes were cut into sections and probed abandoned application supplier-validated antibodies.

Chemiluminescence was captured on a ChemiDocTM Touch Imaging System (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) and protein bands were quantified by densitometric appraisal application ImageLab software (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). Images were acquired beneath non-saturating altitude and were normalized to an autogenous ascendancy for anniversary sample (arbitrary units). When membranes were sectioned for abstracted analysis, anniversary area was normalized to the autogenous ascendancy from the aforementioned membrane. All quantifications are presented afterwards normalization.

Subcellular fractionation was performed as declared previously36. Briefly, RCN were harvested and done in ice-cold phosphate-buffered saline. The corpuscle abeyance was centrifuged at 500 × g for 15 min at 4 °C. The corpuscle pellet was resuspended for 10 min on ice in digitonin lysis absorber (20 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, 80 mM KCl, 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM EGTA, 1 mM DTT, 250 mM sucrose, 200 μg/mL digitonin, and protease inhibitor and phosphatase inhibitor (2,3) affair (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). Beef were passaged 20 times through a 22G needle. The lysate was centrifuged at 1000 × g for 5 min at 4 °C to pellet the nuclei. The afloat was transferred to a new tube and centrifuged afresh at 12,000 × g for 10 min at 4 °C to pellet the mitochondria. The constant supernatant, apery the cytosolic fraction, was recovered. Nuclear and mitochondrial lysates were able in RIPA absorber (Cat #R3792, Teknova, Hollister, CA) with protease inhibitor and phosphatase inhibitor (2,3) affair (Sigma-Aldrich). All accomplish were performed on ice. Pooled nuclear, cysotolic and absolute lysates were probed via electrophoresis and western blemish for COX IV to analyze mitochondrial agreeable and Lamin to analyze nuclear agreeable to verify fractionation procedure.

ChIP appraisal was performed as ahead described37 application a kit from Epigentek (Farmindale, NY), with 2 μg of antibodies to p53 or 4 μg of antibodies to Sp1 per sample. Briefly, afterwards cross-linking application 1% formalehyde in PBS, beef were lysed and chromatin sheared to accomplish bits from 200 to 600 bp application a Bioruptor sonicator (Diagenode). Afterwards this, immunoprecipitation was performed. The afterward bounden sites were analyzed application the afterward album sequences (all nt locations from Rnor_6.0 chromosome 18). Primers were ordered from Integrated DNA Technologies (Coralville, Iowa).

Primers:

5′-CTTCCCTCCCACCTTCGTTT-3′ (62,174,414 –62,174,434 nt)

5′-GCCGGCTCTCGGGTTTTAT-3′ (62,174,653–62,174,872 nt)

p53 site: 5′-CGGCTTGCCCCGGCAAGTTG-3′ (62,174,513–62,174,533 nt)

Sp1 site: 5′-TTCGAAGGGGCGGGG-3′ (62,174,589–62,174,604 nt).

Rat abrogating ascendancy album set 1 (Active Motif) was additionally acclimated to amplify a fragment of a gene arid on rat chromosome 3 as a abrogating control. Normal aerial IgG (#3900 Corpuscle Signaling Technologies, Danvers, MA) and anti-RNA polymerase II antibiotic (Epigentek, Farmingdale, NY) were acclimated as abrogating and absolute controls to validate the album set acclimated on both IPs. The aberration amid the abrogating ascendancy IP and the boilerplate sample IP was 21.8-fold, while the aberration amid the absolute ascendancy IP and the boilerplate sample IP was 3.33-fold. A concoction alternation was activated to account the acknowledgment efficiency, and it was begin to be 77.1% for our album pair. About announcement was affected application the Pfaffl method40.

For the phospho-c-Jun (S73) time course, RCN were advised with etoposide  /− mithramycin on DIV 7 in 24-well plates with coverslips. Afterwards 6, 12, or 24 h, beef were anchored for 10 min in 4% paraformaldehyde/PBS and co-stained with a 1:200 concoction of Corpuscle Signaling’s phospho-c-Jun (S73) and a 1:400 concoction of Millipore’s Milli-MarkTM Pan-Neuronal Marker in 10% dupe serum (Gemini Bio-Products, West Sacramento, CA) overnight. Wells were incubated the abutting day with goat-derived accessory antibiotic (Life Technologies, Fisher Scientific, Hampton, NH), followed by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) (0.5 µg/mL in saline). Imaging was performed via a Leica SP5 II confocal microscope application a ×20 dry cold and ×63 oil-immersion objective. Settings were optimized to aerate arresting acuteness in controls afterwards oversaturating arresting in higher-intensity samples (etoposide-treated). Appraisal was done application an ImageJ macro as declared previously37 to accomplish an unbinned accumulative abundance administering acute acuteness of phospho-c-Jun (S73) arresting per cell.

For the phospho-p53 (S15) appraisal at 6 h, RCN were advised with etoposide  /− mithramycin or Mithramycin abandoned on DIV 7 in 24-well plates with coverslips. Afterwards 6 h, beef were anchored and decrepit with Abcam’s phospho-p53 (S15) antibody. Imaging was performed via a Nikon Ti-E beaming microscope application a ×63 oil-immersion objective. Appraisal was performed application Nikon’s NIS-Elements software to accomplish an unbinned accumulative abundance administering acute acuteness of phospho-p53 (S15) arresting per cell.

To analyze corpuscle afterlife inducers, RCN were advised with doxorubicin, etoposide, C2-ceramide, staurosporine  /− mithramycin on DIV 7 in 24-well plates with coverslips. Afterwards 6 h, beef were anchored and co-stained as declared aloft with a 1:200 concoction of Corpuscle Signaling’s broken PARP (94885), broken Casp3 (9664) or phospho-c-Jun (S73) antibodies and Millipore’s Milli-MarkTM antibody. Imaging was performed via a Nikon Ti-E beaming microscope application a ×63 oil-immersion objective. Appraisal was performed via Nikon’s NIS-Elements software to accomplish an unbinned accumulative abundance administering acute acuteness of phospho-c-Jun (S73) arresting per cell. It was additionally acclimated for anecdotic absolute broken PARP or broken Casp3 arresting per acreage (normalized to the cardinal of nuclei per field) for altitude of broken PARP and broken Casp3.

Various antibodies from altered vendors were acclimated in this study.

Cell Signaling (Danvers, MA): PARP (9542); broken PARP [Asp214, 89 kDa fragment] (9545/94885); broken Casp3 [Asp175, 17 kDa fragment] (9661/9664); broken Casp7 [20 kDa fragment] (9492); phospho-H2AX (S139) (9718); phospho-p53 (S15) (12571); absolute p53 for ChIP (32532); PUMA (14570); AIF (4642); cytochrome c oxygenase IV (COX IV) (4884); Lamin A/C (4777); phospho-c-Jun (S63) (2361); phospho-c-Jun (S73) (3270); absolute c-Jun (9165); absolute c-Fos (2250). Millipore (Ontario, Canada): phospho-ATM(S1981) (05-740); Sp1 for ChIP (07-645); p21—mouse samples (188224); Milli-MarkTM Pan-Neuronal Marker (MAB2300). BD Biosciences (San Jose, CA): p21—rat samples (556430). Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO): β-actin: A1978. Santa Cruz (Dallas, TX): cytochrome c (sc-13560). Enzo (Farmingdale, NY): α-Fodrin or αII-spectrin (a subunit of Fodrin, additionally accepted as “brain spectrin”)41: BML-FG6090. Abcam (Cambridge, MA): phospho-p53 (ab1431).

Eight-week-old (20–25 g) macho C57BL/6 mice were acquired from JAX (Jackson Laboratories, Bar Harbor, ME) for the in vivo experiments. Mice were maintained in a 12-h light/dark aeon with ad libitum admission to aliment and water. All activities were in accordance with protocols accustomed by the University of Maryland School of Animal Care and Use Committee and complied with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals appear by NIH (DHEW advertisement NIH 85-23-2985).

We activated a custom-designed CCI abrasion device37,42,43 consisting of a microprocessor-controlled aeriform impactor with a 3.5 mm bore tip. Mice were anesthetized with isofluorane (3–3.5% induction, 1.5% maintenance) in a 70% NO, 30% O2 gas admixture administered via adenoids mask. Animals were monitored during procedures to appraise abyss of anesthesia via respiration amount and pedal abandonment reflexes. The surgical armpit was clipped, afresh the arch army in a stereotaxic anatomy and the abrasion armpit bankrupt with betadine (Professional Disposables, Orangebury, NY) and booze scrubs (Fisher Scientific, Hampton, NH). Mice accustomed puralube vet balm eye lubrication (Dechra Veterinary Products, Overland Park, KS). A 10-mm midline cavity was fabricated over the skull, the bark and fascia were reflected, and a 5 mm craniotomy was fabricated on the axial aspect of the larboard parietal bone37,44. The impactor tip of the abrasion accessory was continued to its abounding achievement ambit (44 mm) and positioned to the apparent of the apparent dura, afresh displace to appulse the cortical surface. Moderate abrasion was performed application impactor acceleration of 6 m/s and anamorphosis abyss of 2 mm, as ahead described45. The cavity was afresh bankrupt via 6 mm nylon surgical sutures (Unify® Premium , AD Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) and anesthesia was terminated. Mice were about assigned to CCI or adulterated groups. Adulterated mice underwent alone anesthesia and cavity (with no craniotomy).

Following injury, mice accustomed an intracerebroventricular (icv) bang of 0.3 mM mithramycin in bogus CSF (#59-7316, Harvard Apparatus, Holliston, MA) or according aggregate of agent (artificial CSF   DMSO). Solutions were able on the day of surgery. The bang was performed anon afterwards abrasion via 30-gauge aggravate absorbed to Hamilton syringe (Hamilton, Reno, NV) into the larboard ventricle (anterior after (AP): −0.5, centermost crabbed (ML): −1.0, after belly (DV): −2.0 from bregma) at a amount of 0.5 µL/min with a final aggregate of 5 µL (1.5 nmoles) alloyed over 10 min. This dosage was based on above-mentioned assignment utilizing CR837, and comparisons of the two compounds’ neuroprotective furnishings in vitro. CCI mice were about assigned to an icv appraisal accumulation with a final absolute of 7 (CCI   saline) or 8 (CCI   mithramycin) animals per group. At 24 h post-injury the animals were euthanized and the afflicted case was analyzed.

For in vitro LDH, calcein, qPCR, and western blemish assays, at atomic three abstracted wells of primary RCN seeded on day 0 from the aforementioned primary ability were acclimated for any accustomed assay. These abandoned able and advised neurons abandoned from the aforementioned basin of embryos were run on the aforementioned gel/assay bowl and quantified as adumbrated elsewhere. Anniversary set of abstracts (except ChIP) involving etoposide  /− mithramycin was again at atomic alert in an agnate address with addition basin of embryos from a altered abundant dam and showed constant results. Abstracts with added corpuscle afterlife inducers besides etoposide were again at atomic once. For mitochondrial action analysis, anniversary bowl (n = 4) came from a abstracted basin of embryos, and anniversary independent abandoned able and advised neurons (different wells, anniversary seeded with the aforementioned cardinal of neurons) abandoned from the aforementioned basin of embryos.

All immunofluorescent appraisal was done on assorted fields from a distinct coverslip for anniversary appraisal and anniversary timepoint. These coverslips came from abandoned able and advised neurons (different wells) abandoned from a distinct basin of embryos. The abstracts were again as declared in the branch aloft and showed constant results.

Statistical appraisal was performed application GraphPad Prism 8 (La Jolla, CA). For mitochondrial action tests, we acclimated a one-way repeated-measures ANOVA with Tukey’s column hoc tests. LDH, Calcein, ChIP, qPCR and western blemish assays were all analyzed via one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s column hoc tests. Immunocytochemically decrepit beef were analyzed application the Kruskal–Wallis assay followed by Dunn’s column hoc appraisal for phospho-P53 and phospho-c-Jun (S73) and with one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s column hoc tests for broken PARP and broken Casp3 analyses. All abstracts analyzed with one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s column hoc tests met the course acceptance by the Shapiro–Wilk test. Otherwise, the abstracts were analyzed application the Kruskal–Wallis test, followed by Dunn’s column hoc tests. When appropriate, we activated for diff about-face by the Brown–Forsythe assay and if unequal, we activated the Brown–Forsythe ANOVA assay followed by Dunnett’s T3 assorted comparisons test.

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